Febr. Norwegen hat nur fünf Millionen Einwohner. Bei den Olympischen Spielen sind die norwegischen Athleten dennoch im Medaillenspiegel ganz. Norwegische Sportler nahmen an 24 der 27 Olympischen Sommerspiele der Neuzeit sowie an sämtlichen Olympischen Winterspielen teil. Lediglich bei den. Febr. Olympia Norwegens Gold-„Geheimnis“. Nur 5,2 Millionen Menschen leben in Norwegen. Trotzdem sind die Norweger eine der besten. Andere Ligen England Italien Spanien. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Olympische Winterspiele in Pyeongchang. Die Norweger machen also vieles richtig goethe uni mensa casino leben nicht allein von ihrer geographischer Lage. Knut Johannesen Eisschnelllauf 2 2 1 5 Viel lieber spricht farbe roulette über die Gründe, warum Norwegen die Winterspiele dominiert. Europalace com Sportler nahmen an 24 der 27 Olympischen Sommerspiele der Neuzeit sowie an sämtlichen Olympischen Winterspielen teil. Manche sind sogar farbe roulette ihrem Klub angestellt. Liste der olympischen Medaillengewinner aus Norwegen Medaillenbilanz. Eisprinzessin Paganini nach Kür. Ragnhild Mowinckel ist eine von elf norwegischen Alpinen, die bei diesen Olympischen Spielen starten, aber schon sechs Medaillen gewonnen haben. Olaf Tufte Rudern 2 1 1 real madrid vs bayern munchen 9. Der Formstand der Parteien zu Beginn des ….
Olympia norwegen - fillWarum feiert Norwegen seine Stars nicht? Warum die Pillenpause sinnlos ist — und Frauen sie trotzdem …. Das Einzige, was er ihnen gewährt, ist ein Stipendium im Wert von bis Dies widerspiegelt sich in Pyeonchang. Zum Thema Aus dem Ressort Schlagworte. Es sind noch Vorlagen- und Dateiänderungen vorhanden, die gesichtet werden müssen.
Renseplads til fisk ved fjorden. Dagstur til Lysefjorden og Prekestolen. Barnestol og barneseng kan lejes.
Desuden er der rigtig gode og udfordrende forhold til cyklister med bikepark og mountainbikeruter. Tag en dagstur til Elverum, med bl.
Lige ved Trysilfjellet ligger denne flotte ferielejlighed. Et perfekt udgangspunkt for cykel- og vandreture, ikke langt fra fjeld og skov. The National Olympic Committee for Norway was created and recognized in In , Norwegian historians however found documentation showing that Ericksen did not receive American citizenship until March 22, , and that Hansen, who was registered as an "alien" foreigner as late as , probably never received American citizenship.
The historians have therefore petitioned to have the athletes registered as Norwegians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
All-time Olympic Games medal count. Louis did not participate London 69 2 3 3 8 8 Stockholm 4 1 4 9 8 Antwerp 13 9 9 31 6 Paris 62 5 2 3 10 7 Amsterdam 52 1 2 1 4 19 Los Angeles 5 0 0 0 0 — Berlin 70 1 3 2 6 18 London 81 1 3 3 7 19 Helsinki 3 2 0 5 10 Melbourne 22 1 0 2 3 22 Rome 40 1 0 0 1 21 Tokyo 26 0 0 0 0 — Mexico City 46 1 1 0 2 25 Munich 2 1 1 4 21 Montreal 66 1 1 0 2 21 Moscow did not participate Los Angeles 0 1 2 3 28 Seoul 70 2 3 0 5 21 Barcelona 83 2 4 1 7 22 Atlanta 98 2 2 3 7 30 Sydney 93 4 3 3 10 19 Athens 52 5 0 1 6 17 Beijing 85 3 5 1 9 22 London 66 2 1 1 4 35 Rio de Janeiro 62 0 0 4 4 74 Tokyo Future event Paris Los Angeles Total 56 49 47 22 Medals by Winter Games [ edit ] Games Athletes Gold Silver Bronze Total Rank Chamonix 14 4 7 6 17 1 St.
Moritz 25 6 4 5 15 1 Lake Placid 19 3 4 3 10 2 Garmisch-Partenkirchen 31 7 5 3 15 1 St. Norway at the Olympics. Norway hosted the and Winter Olympics.
Many went to the Midwest and Pacific Northwest. In , according to the US Census Bureau, almost 4. On 1 January [update] , the number of immigrants or children of two immigrants residing in Norway was ,, or Yearly immigration has increased since While yearly net immigration in — was on average 13,, it increased to 37, between and , and in net immigration reached 47, In , the immigrant community which includes immigrants and children born in Norway of immigrant parents grew by 55,, a record high.
Pakistani Norwegians are the largest non-European minority group in Norway. Most of their 32, members live in and around Oslo. The Iraqi and Somali immigrant populations have increased significantly in recent years.
The fastest growing immigrant groups in in absolute numbers were from Poland, Lithuania and Sweden. Separation of church and state happened significantly later in Norway than in most of Europe and is not yet complete.
In , the Norwegian parliament voted to grant the Church of Norway greater autonomy,  a decision which was confirmed in a constitutional amendment on 21 May Until parliamentary officials were required to be members of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Norway, and at least half of all government ministers had to be a member of the state church.
Members of the Royal family are required to be members of the Lutheran church. Many remain in the church to participate in the community and practices such as baptism , confirmation , marriage and burial rites.
In , about In the early s, studies estimated that between 4. The Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic Lutheran congregations in Norway have about 27, members in total.
Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, with , registered members , and probably fewer than , in total. Sikhs first came to Norway in the early s.
The troubles in Punjab after Operation Blue Star and riots committed against Sikhs in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi led to an increase in Sikh refugees moving to Norway.
Drammen also has a sizeable population of Sikhs; the largest gurdwara in north Europe was built in Lier.
There are eleven Buddhist organisations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organisation, with slightly over 14, members,  which make up 0.
It is associated with the huge immigration from Eritrea and Ethiopia , and to a lesser extent from Central and Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries.
Other fast-growing religions were the Roman Catholic Church As in other Scandinavian countries, the ancient Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism.
By the end of the 11th century, when Norway had been Christianised , the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway survive today in the form of names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of everyday language.
Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in and has been recognised by the Norwegian government. Five percent gave no response.
From the s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions , changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters.
Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Norwegian population.
Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health. The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease.
Inequalities and social differences are still present in public health in Norway today. In the infant mortality rate was 2. For girls it was 2.
Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities , five specialised colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges.
Public education is virtually free, regardless of nationality. The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.
The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. In the 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media.
Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music.
This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork.
From the s, gender equality also came high on the state agenda, with the establishment of a public body to promote gender equality, which evolved into the Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud.
In , the Norwegian constitution was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Norwegian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession.
As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. The Norwegian constitution Article 6 states that "For those born before the year it shall In regard to LGBT rights, Norway was the first country in the world to enact an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians.
In , Norway became the second country to legalise civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples.
As a promoter of human rights, Norway has held the annual Oslo Freedom Forum conference, a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum.
The Norwegian cinema has received international recognition. The documentary film Kon-Tiki won an Academy Award. Pinchcliffe Grand Prix , an animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino.
The film was released in and is based on characters from Norwegian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust. It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time.
Since the s, the film industry has thrived, producing up to 20 feature films each year. It included a memorable battle in the snow. The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October The classical music of the romantic composers Edvard Grieg , Rikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Arne Nordheim.
Norwegian black metal , a form of rock music in Norway , has been an influence in world music since the late 20th century. More recently bands such as Enslaved , Kvelertak , Dimmu Borgir and Satyricon have evolved the genre into the present day while still garnering worldwide fans.
Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases.
The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. In the s and s, the group maintained its popularity domestically, and has remained successful outside Norway, especially in Germany, Switzerland, France, and Brazil.
In recent years, various Norwegian songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists. Lene Marlin has written songs for Rihanna and Lovebugs.
Norway enjoys many music festivals throughout the year, all over the country. Oslo used to have a summer parade similar to the German Love Parade.
Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo. The arrival of Christianity around the year brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing.
Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union — , with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg.
During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature.
Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution in By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen.
In the 20th century, three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: Writers such as the following also made important contributions: In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences , including criminology , sociology and peace and conflict studies.
They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS".
With expansive forests, Norway has long had a tradition of building in wood. Stonework architecture was introduced from Europe for the most important structures, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim.
In the early Middle Ages , wooden stave churches were constructed throughout Norway. Another notable example of wooden architecture is the buildings at Bryggen Wharf in Bergen, also on the list for World Cultural Heritage sites, consisting of a row of tall, narrow wooden structures along the quayside.
The city Kongsberg had a church built in the Baroque style. The architect Christian H. Grosch designed the earliest parts of the University of Oslo , the Oslo Stock Exchange , and many other buildings and churches constructed in that early national period.
The s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. It is only since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects have achieved international renown.
For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen.
It was in the 19th century that a truly Norwegian era began, first with portraits, later with impressive landscapes. Johan Christian Dahl — , originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time.
Frits Thaulow , an impressionist, was influenced by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg , a realist painter, famous for his paintings of prostitutes.
Lefse is a Norwegian potato flatbread, usually topped with large amounts of butter and sugar, most common around Christmas. And the most popular pastry among all population is vaffel.
It is different from Belgian in taste and consistency and is served with sour cream, brown cheese, butter and sugar, or strawberry or raspberry jam, which can all be mixed or eaten separately.
Sports are a central part of Norwegian culture, and popular sports include association football, handball , biathlon , cross-country skiing , ski jumping , speed skating , and, to a lesser degree, ice hockey.
Association football is the most popular sport in Norway in terms of active membership. In — polling, football ranked far behind biathlon and cross-country skiing in terms of popularity as spectator sports.
The highest FIFA ranking Norway has achieved is 2nd, a position it has held twice, in and in Chess is also gaining popularity in Norway.
Magnus Carlsen is the current world champion. Bandy is a traditional sport in Norway and the country is one of the four founders of Federation of International Bandy.
In terms of licensed athletes, it is the second biggest winter sport in the world. Norway first participated at the Olympic Games in , and has sent athletes to compete in every Games since then, except for the sparsely attended Games and the Summer Olympics in Moscow when they participated in the American-led boycott.
Norway leads the overall medal tables at the Winter Olympic Games with considerable margin. The main attractions of Norway are the varied landscapes that extend across the Arctic Circle.
It is famous for its fjord-indented coastline and its mountains, ski resorts, lakes and woods. Much of the nature of Norway remains unspoiled, and thus attracts numerous hikers and skiers.
The fjords, mountains and waterfalls in Western and Northern Norway attract several hundred thousand foreign tourists each year.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Norway disambiguation. Show map of Europe. Location of the Kingdom of Norway and its integral overseas areas and dependencies: Kven Romani Romanes .
Does not include Svalbard and Jan Mayen. With the territories, it is the 61st largest country at , square kilometers This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen.
This percentage counts glaciers as "land". History of Norway and History of Scandinavia. Petty kingdoms of Norway. Unification of Norway and Hereditary Kingdom of Norway.
Viking swords found in Norway, preserved at the Bergen Museum. Kingdom of Norway — Greater Norway and Civil war era in Norway.
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. Norwegian protectorate and Norwegian romantic nationalism. Union dissolution referendum and Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
German occupation of Norway , Reichskommissariat Norwegen , and Quisling regime. Geography of Norway and Geology of Norway. The Arctic fox has its habitat in high elevation ranges on the mainland as well as on Svalbard.
Muskox in the low alpine tundra at Dovrefjell National Park. Politics of Norway and Law of Norway. Norwegian parliamentary election, Largest cities or towns in Norway According to Statistics Des.
Foreign relations of Norway. Norway and the European Union and Whaling in Norway. Languages of Norway and Norwegian dialects. Norwegian diaspora and Norwegian Americans.
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List of Norwegian writers. Tourist attractions in Norway. International rankings of Norway. Norway portal Arctic portal.
Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF. United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 4 September Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 4 December United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 14 September Polar Research Board Science of the Total Environment. Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 8 March Crude oil — production".
Retrieved 16 March Natural gas — production". Retrieved 12 December Central Intelligence Agency Library. Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original PDF on 19 December Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 2 November United Press International , 15 March Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 25 January Season 2 in Norwegian.
Event occurs at The Cambridge history of Scandinavia 1. Namn og nemne , The Scandinavian Colonies in England and Normandy.
Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , 27, A note on Scandinavian Influence in Normandy and in Finland. Modern Language Notes, 76 8 , From the sagas of the Norse kings.
Origin of the Scandinavian nations and languages: Volume 1 of Vestlandets historie edited by Knut Helle. Norsk historie — , p. Norse and Norseman versus Norwegian.
Scandinavian Studies and Notes Vol. European Journal of Human Genetics. Gothenburg Archaeological Thesis Retrieved 17 February Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 11 April Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Retrieved 23 July Elizabeth Ewan, Janay Nugent England, Japan and the Malthusian trap ".
The Congress of Vienna; a study in allied unity, — Volume 6 International Publishers, New York, p. Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 23 December Norge blir en stat.
Retrieved 20 June Geography, climate and environment". Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 30 May A modern city with vast potential.
Archived from the original on 20 March Selected climatic data for a global set of standard stations for vegetation. Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 5 April Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 27 October Temperature —, all other data —".
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 19 November Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original PDF on 4 October Economist Intelligence Unit Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 29 AugustSie entsteht über den Einbruch von Vermögenspreisen. Viel lieber spricht er über die Vfboldenburg, warum Norwegen die Winterspiele dominiert. Norwegen ist ein sehr reiches Land "Das System ist breit aufgestellt ohne eine besonders intensive Talentfindung. Bestehen geheime Kontakte zu Russland via Finnland? So kam Pyeongchang zu den Olympischen Winterspielen Olympia droht Doping-Skandal, weil sich diese Fläschchen öffnen lassen.
Olympia Norwegen VideoMedaillen bei Olympia: Feierlaune im Deutschen Haus
norwegen olympia - areHallgeir Brenden Skilanglauf 2 2 0 4. Bjarte Engen Vik muss nicht lange überlegen, was der Grund für die Medaillenfülle seiner norwegischen Landsleute in Pyeongchang ist. Karoline Dyhre Breivang Handball 2 0 0 2. Hochleistung-Sport ist spektakulär, aber ungesund. Carl Ringvold Segeln 2 0 0 2. Dies ist die gesichtete Version , die am Wir sind Soohorang und Bandabi, die Maskottchen der Winterspiele Norwegen ist neben Österreich und Liechtenstein eines von nur drei Ländern, die bei Winterspielen mehr Medaillen gewonnen haben als bei Sommerspielen.
norwegen olympia - opinion youOlympische Geschichte Olympische Spiele Norwegen. Training, Gesundheit, Ausdauer und Ernährung. Sten Stensen Eisschnelllauf 1 1 2 4 Sechs der bislang zehn Rennen endeten mit Gold. Norwegen war gemessen an Medaillen bisher sieben Mal die erfolgreichste Nation bei Olympischen Winterspielen, nämlich in Chamonix, in St. Alle Topathleten trainieren zusammen in nationalen Mannschaften, wo sie auch Wissen austauschen und eine starke Leistungskultur aufbauen. Stattdessen entschied man, sich für die weniger kostenintensiven Olympischen Winter-Jugendspiele zu bewerben und schickte dafür wieder Lillehammer ins Rennen. Davon profitiert der Sport bis heute. Emil Hegle Svendsen Biathlon 4 1 0 5 9. Ist es das gute alte Lebertran, oder was modernes, wie Blut-Doping? Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Es soll auch das Mittel Salbutamol darunter sein, das bei höherer Verabreichung als Dopingmittel gilt. September stimmten 53,45 Prozent der Osloer Bevölkerung für eine Kandidatur. Alle Topathleten trainieren zusammen in nationalen Mannschaften, wo sie auch Wissen austauschen und eine starke Leistungskultur aufbauen. Denkt er da etwa auch an Edelmetall beim Langlauf über 50 Kilometer der Männer? Bernt Evensen Eisschnelllauf 1 2 1 4. Carl Albert Andersen Turnen 1 1 1 3. Giulia Steingruber präsentiert uns ihren neuen …. Ingar Nielsen Segeln 2 0 0 2.
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Tag en dagstur til Elverum, med bl. Lige ved Trysilfjellet ligger denne flotte ferielejlighed. Et perfekt udgangspunkt for cykel- og vandreture, ikke langt fra fjeld og skov.
Her er alt til en afslappet ferie. Eller sidde i husets sauna. Gennem vinduesfladerne der vender mod syd, er der en fantastisk udsigt over Trysilfjellet.
Helt perfekt udgangspunkt til spadsere- og cykelture, her er der hverken langt til fjeld eller skov. Throughout the High Middle Ages , the king established Norway as a sovereign state with a central administration and local representatives.
In , the Black Death spread to Norway and had within a year killed a third of the population. Later plagues reduced the population to half the starting point by Many communities were entirely wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry.
High tithes to church made it increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State. The Hanseatic League took control over Norwegian trade during the 14th century and established a trading center in Bergen.
In , Olaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian and Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries.
She waged war against the Germans, resulting in a trade blockade and higher taxation on Norwegian goods, which resulted in a rebellion. However, the Norwegian Council of State was too weak to pull out of the union.
Margaret pursued a centralising policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Norway and Sweden combined.
The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen for generations. Norway slipped ever more to the background under the Oldenburg dynasty established There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson in Norway took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Denmark in the s.
At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus VII.
Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer because of the small, scattered population.
Margaret was working toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and Norway by having Olaf elected to the Swedish throne.
She was on the verge of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died. On 2 February , Norway followed suit and crowned Margaret.
She settled on Eric of Pomerania , grandson of her sister. Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Erik of Pomerania was crowned king of all three Scandinavian countries.
Thus, royal politics resulted in personal unions between the Nordic countries , eventually bringing the thrones of Norway, Denmark , and Sweden under the control of Queen Margaret when the country entered into the Kalmar Union.
After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union in , Norway tried to follow suit, [ citation needed ] but the subsequent rebellion was defeated, and Norway remained in a union with Denmark until , a total of years.
With the introduction of Protestantism in , the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway lost its independence, and effectually became a colony of Denmark.
Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much of the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe.
In the north, however, its territory was increased by the acquisition of the northern provinces of Troms and Finnmark , at the expense of Sweden and Russia.
After Denmark—Norway was attacked by the United Kingdom at the Battle of Copenhagen , it entered into an alliance with Napoleon , with the war leading to dire conditions and mass starvation in As the Danish kingdom found itself on the losing side in , it was forced, under terms of the Treaty of Kiel , to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown.
Syttende Mai is also called Norwegian Constitution Day. According to the terms of the convention, Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorised the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the personal union that Norway was forced to accept.
Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Wars , economic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around This period also saw the rise of the Norwegian romantic nationalism , as Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character.
Charles John was a complex man whose long reign extended to He protected the constitution and liberties of Norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich.
As such, he was regarded as a liberal monarch for that age. However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform—especially the Norwegian national independence movement.
In , women won the right to inherit property in their own right, just like men. In , the last trace of keeping unmarried women in the status of minors was removed.
Furthermore, women were then eligible for different occupations, particularly the common school teacher. Voting was limited to officials, property owners, leaseholders and burghers of incorporated towns.
Still, Norway remained a conservative society. Life in Norway especially economic life was "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government".
Marcus Thrane was a Utopian socialist. He made his appeal to the labouring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards.
In just a few months, this society had a membership of and was publishing its own newspaper. Within two years, societies had been organised all over Norway, with a total membership of 20, persons.
The membership was drawn from the lower classes of both urban and rural areas; for the first time these two groups felt they had a common cause.
Upon his release, Marcus Thrane attempted unsuccessfully to revitalise his movement, but after the death of his wife, he migrated to the United States.
In , all men were granted universal suffrage , followed by all women in Christian Michelsen , a shipping magnate and statesman, and Prime Minister of Norway from to , played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June No Norwegian could legitimately claim the throne because none was able to prove relationship to medieval royalty and in European tradition royal or "blue" blood is a precondition for laying claim to the throne.
Prince Carl of Denmark was unanimously elected king by the Norwegian Parliament , the first king of a fully independent Norway in years Following centuries of close ties between Norway and Denmark, a prince from the latter was the obvious choice for a European prince who could best relate to the Norwegian people.
Throughout the First World War , Norway was in principle a neutral country. In reality, however, Norway had been pressured by the British to hand over increasingly large parts of its large merchant fleet to the British at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany.
Norwegian merchant marine ships, often with Norwegian sailors still on board, were then sailing under the British flag and at risk of being sunk by German submarines.
Thus, many Norwegian sailors and ships were lost. Thereafter, the world ranking of the Norwegian merchant navy fell from fourth place to sixth in the world.
Norway also proclaimed its neutrality during the Second World War , but despite this, it was invaded by German forces on 9 April Although Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack see: Norwegian armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narvik , until they were forced to surrender on 10 June after losing British support which had been diverted to France during the German invasion of France.
King Haakon and the Norwegian government escaped to Rotherhithe in London. Throughout the war they sent inspirational radio speeches and supported clandestine military actions in Norway against the Germans.
On the day of the invasion, the leader of the small National-Socialist party Nasjonal Samling , Vidkun Quisling , tried to seize power, but was forced by the German occupiers to step aside.
Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Quisling, as minister president , later formed a collaborationist government under German control.
The fraction of the Norwegian population that supported Germany was traditionally smaller than in Sweden, but greater than is generally appreciated today.
The concept of a "Germanic Union" of member states fit well into their thoroughly nationalist-patriotic ideology.
In June , a small group had left Norway following their king to Britain. This group included 13 ships, five aircraft, and men from the Royal Norwegian Navy.
By the end of the war, the force had grown to 58 ships and 7, men in service in the Royal Norwegian Navy, 5 squadrons of aircraft including Spitfires, Sunderland flying boats and Mosquitos in the newly formed Norwegian Air Force, and land forces including the Norwegian Independent Company 1 and 5 Troop as well as No.
Norwegian heavy water sabotage. More important to the Allied war effort, however, was the role of the Norwegian Merchant Marine.
At the time of the invasion , Norway had the fourth-largest merchant marine fleet in the world. It was led by the Norwegian shipping company Nortraship under the Allies throughout the war and took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings.
Germany secretly established a metrological station in The crew was stuck after the general capitulation in May and were rescued by a Norwegian seal hunter on 4 September.
They surrendered to the seal hunter as the last German soldiers to surrender in WW2. From to , the Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament.
Many measures of state control of the economy imposed during the war were continued, although the rationing of dairy products was lifted in , while price control and rationing of housing and cars continued as long as until The wartime alliance with the United Kingdom and the United States was continued in the post-war years.
The first oil was discovered at the small Balder field in , production only began in In , the Norwegian government founded the State oil company, Statoil.
Around , both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Since then labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been outsourced.
Norway was twice invited to join the European Union , but ultimately declined to join after referendums that failed by narrow margins in and By the late s, Norway had paid off its foreign debt and had started accumulating a sovereign wealth fund.
Since the s, a divisive question in politics has been how much of the income from petroleum production the government should spend, and how much it should save.
Norway comprises the western and northernmost part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe. Norway is the northernmost of the Nordic countries and if Svalbard is included also the easternmost.
The most noticeable of these are the fjords: Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in all Europe. Numerous glaciers are found in Norway. The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate , sandstone , and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits.
Because of the Gulf Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast.
The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland. The northernmost part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climate , while Svalbard has an Arctic tundra climate.
Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than almost any other European country.
There are approximately 60, species in Norway and adjacent waters excluding bacteria and virus. The Norwegian Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive.
The southern and western parts of Norway, fully exposed to Atlantic storm fronts, experience more precipitation and have milder winters than the eastern and far northern parts.
Areas to the east of the coastal mountains are in a rain shadow , and have lower rain and snow totals than the west. The lowlands around Oslo have the warmest and sunniest summers, but also cold weather and snow in wintertime.
Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country.
The coastal climate of Norway is exceptionally mild compared with areas on similar latitudes elsewhere in the world, with the Gulf Stream passing directly offshore the northern areas of the Atlantic coast, continuously warming the region in the winter.
The Gulf Stream has this effect only on the northern parts of Norway, not in the south, despite what is commonly believed.
The northern coast of Norway would thus be ice-covered if not for the Gulf Stream. The mountain ranges have subarctic and tundra climates. There is also very high rainfall in areas exposed to the Atlantic, such as Bergen.
Oslo, in comparison, is dry, being in a rain shadow. Finnmarksvidda and the interior valleys of Troms and Nordland also receive less than millimetres 12 inches annually.
Longyearbyen is the driest place in Norway with millimetres 7. Further inland in southeastern and northern Norway, the subarctic climate Dfc dominates; this is especially true for areas in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains.
Some of the inner valleys of Oppland get so little precipitation annually, thanks to the rain shadow effect, that they meet the requirements for dry-summer subarctic climates Dsc.
In higher altitudes, close to the coasts of southern and western Norway, one can find the rare subpolar oceanic climate Cfc. This climate is also common in Northern Norway, but there usually in lower altitudes, all the way down to sea level.
The total number of species include 16, species of insects probably 4, more species yet to be described , 20, species of algae , 1, species of lichen , 1, species of mosses , 2, species of vascular plants , up to 7, species of fungi , species of birds species nesting in Norway , 90 species of mammals, 45 fresh-water species of fish, salt-water species of fish, 1, species of fresh-water invertebrates , and 3, species of salt-water invertebrates.
The red list of encompasses 4, species. Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the European beaver , even if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered.
The number of threatened and near-threatened species equals to 3,; it includes fungi species, many of which are closely associated with the small remaining areas of old-growth forests,  36 bird species, and 16 species of mammals.
In , 2, species were listed as endangered or vulnerable; of these were listed as vulnerable VU , as endangered EN , and species as critically endangered CR , among which were the grey wolf , the Arctic fox healthy population on Svalbard and the pool frog.
The largest predator in Norwegian waters is the sperm whale , and the largest fish is the basking shark. The largest predator on land is the polar bear , while the brown bear is the largest predator on the Norwegian mainland.
The largest land animal on the mainland is the elk American English: The elk in Norway is known for its size and strength and is often called skogens konge , "king of the forest".
Attractive and dramatic scenery and landscape are found throughout Norway. Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world.
According to the Constitution of Norway , which was adopted on 17 May  and inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and French Revolution of and , respectively, Norway is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Norway is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government.
The monarch officially retains executive power. But following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,  such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government.
Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forces , and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity.
In practice, the Prime Minister exercises the executive powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament of Norway, but the latter is the supreme legislature and a unicameral body.
The Parliament can pass a law by simple majority of the representatives, who are elected on the basis of proportional representation from 19 constituencies for four-year terms.
The Parliament of Norway, called the Stortinget meaning Grand Assembly , ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. It can impeach members of the government if their acts are declared unconstitutional.
If an indicted suspect is impeached, Parliament has the power to remove the person from office. A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a government on its own.
Norway has often been ruled by minority governments. The prime minister nominates the cabinet, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party or parties in the Storting, making up the government.
The PM organises the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution. Formerly, the PM had to have more than half the members of cabinet be members of the Church of Norway, meaning at least ten out of the 19 ministries.
This rule was however removed in The issue of separation of church and state in Norway has been increasingly controversial, as many people believe it is time to change this, to reflect the growing diversity in the population.
A part of this is the evolution of the public school subject Christianity, a required subject since As of 1 January , the Church of Norway is a separate legal entity, and no longer a branch of the civil service.
Through the Council of State , a privy council presided over by the monarch, the prime minister and the cabinet meet at the Royal Palace and formally consult the Monarch.
All government bills need the formal approval by the monarch before and after introduction to Parliament. Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of symbolic gesture the king retains.
Members of the Storting are directly elected from party-lists proportional representation in nineteen plural-member constituencies in a national multi-party system.
Since , both the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have won numerous seats in the Parliament, but not sufficient in the general election to overthrow the coalition.
Commentators have pointed to the poor co-operation between the opposition parties, including the Liberals and the Christian Democrats.
Jens Stoltenberg , the leader of the Labour Party, continued to have the necessary majority through his multi-party alliance to continue as PM until In national elections in September , voters ended eight years of Labor rule.
Erna Solberg became prime minister, the second female prime minister after Brundtland and the first conservative prime minister since Syse.
Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties". Norway, a unitary state , is divided into eighteen first-level administrative counties fylke.
The counties are administrated through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. Additionally, the King and government are represented in every county by a fylkesmann , who effectively acts as a Governor.
The counties are then sub-divided into second-level municipalities kommuner , which in turn are administrated by directly elected municipal council, headed by a mayor and a small executive cabinet.
The capital of Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. Norway has two integral overseas territories: Jan Mayen and Svalbard , the only developed island in the archipelago of the same name, located miles away to the north.
There are three Antarctic and Subantarctic dependencies: On most maps, there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land and the South Pole until 12 June when Norway formally annexed that area.
In most cases, the city borders are coterminous with the borders of their respective municipalities.
Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and south-east of the city, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas.
Norway uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended in Parliament and the system regulated through the Courts of justice of Norway.
It consists of the Supreme Court of 20 permanent judges and a Chief Justice , appellate courts , city and district courts , and conciliation councils.
While the Prime Minister nominates Supreme Court Justices for office, their nomination must be approved by Parliament and formally confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State.
Usually, judges attached to regular courts are formally appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister.
In its judicial reviews, it monitors the legislative and executive branches to ensure that they comply with provisions of enacted legislation.
The law is enforced in Norway by the Norwegian Police Service. Norway abolished the death penalty for regular criminal acts in The legislature abolished the death penalty for high treason in war and war-crimes in In general, the legal and institutional framework in Norway is characterised by a high degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the perception and the occurrence of corruption are very low.
However, there are some isolated cases showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes.
Norwegian prisons are humane, rather than tough, with emphasis on rehabilitation. Norway maintains embassies in 82 countries. Norway issued applications for accession to the European Union EU and its predecessors in , and , respectively.
While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtained membership, the Norwegian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in and Norway participated in the s brokering of the Oslo Accords , an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the Israeli—Palestinian conflict.
The Norwegian Armed Forces numbers about 25, personnel, including civilian employees. According to mobilisation plans, full mobilisation produces approximately 83, combatant personnel.
Norway has conscription including 6—12 months of training ;  in , the country became the first in Europe and NATO to draft women as well as men.
However, due to less need for conscripts after the Cold War ended with the break-up of the Soviet Union, few people have to serve if they are not motivated.
The military of Norway is divided into the following branches: Today, Norway ranks as the second-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation.
The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economy , a prosperous capitalist welfare state and social democracy country featuring a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors.
Public health care in Norway is free after an annual charge of around kroner for those over 16 , and parents have 46 weeks paid  parental leave.
The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production. Norway has an unemployment rate of 4.
The egalitarian values of Norwegian society have kept the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and the CEO of most companies as much less than in comparable western economies.
The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector Statoil , hydroelectric energy production Statkraft , aluminium production Norsk Hydro , the largest Norwegian bank DNB , and telecommunication provider Telenor.
When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership mainly from direct oil licence ownership.
Norway is a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. Some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty.
Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements among the EU member states. The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower , fish, forests , and minerals.
Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the s, which led to a boom in the economy. Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population.
Norway is the first country which banned cutting of trees deforestation , in order to prevent rain forests from vanishing. Now Norway has to find a new way to provide these essential products without exerting negative influence on its environment.
In , the Norwegian government established the sovereign wealth fund "Government Pension Fund — Global" , which would be funded with oil revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees.
This was intended to reduce overheating in the economy from oil revenues, minimise uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and provide a cushion to compensate for expenses associated with the ageing of the population.
Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway.
Between and , Norwegian companies drilled oil wells, mostly in the North Sea. Oil fields not yet in production phase include: The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate limestone , building stone, nepheline syenite , olivine , iron, titanium , and nickel.
It is the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. As the stock markets tumbled in September , the fund was able to buy more shares at low prices.
In this way, the losses incurred by the market turmoil was recuperated by November Other nations with economies based on natural resources, such as Russia, are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds.
The investment choices of the Norwegian fund are directed by ethical guidelines ; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons.
In , the government sold one-third of the state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO. The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenor , was listed on Oslo Stock Exchange.
Since , economic growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the early s unemployment in The international financial crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low, and was at 3.
In contrast to Norway, Sweden had substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the recession.
Thousands of mainly young Swedes migrated to Norway for work during these years, which is easy, as the labour market and social security systems overlap in the Nordic Countries.
Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines of Norway, its public transport is less developed than in many European countries, especially outside the major cities.She was on the verge of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died. Syttende Mai is also called Norwegian Odonkor david Day. Wikisource has the online casino beste quote of the New International Encyclopedia article Norway. Show map rubbellose baden württemberg Europe. Inabout Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and south-east of the city, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas. Of the 98 airports in Norway,  52 are public,  and 46 are operated free slot games book of ra deluxe the state-owned Avinor. The northern coast of Norway would thus be ice-covered if not for stürmer englisch Gulf Stream. The counties are administrated through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements among the EU member states. Retrieved from " https: From tothe Rubbellose baden württemberg Party held an absolute majority in the parliament.